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Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Idris al-Shafi’i al-Muttalib al-Qurashi

Personal Info

  • Country of residence: Palestine
  • Gender: Male
  • Born in: 1800
  • Age: 222
  • Curriculum vitae :


Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Idris al-Shafi’i al-Muttalib al-Qurashi ( 150-204 AH / 767-820 AD ) is the third of the four imams among the Sunnis and the group , and the owner of the Shafi’i school of Islamic jurisprudence , and the founder of the science of jurisprudence , and he is also an imam in the science of interpretation and the science of hadith . A judge known for justice and intelligence. In addition to religious sciences, al-Shafi'i was an eloquent poet, a skilled archer, and a traveler. Most scholars praised him, until Imam Ahmad said about him : “Al-Shafi’i was like the sun to this world, and like wellness to people.” And it was said that he is the Imam of Quraysh whom he mentioned. The Prophet Muhammad said: “ The scholar of Quraysh will fill the earth with knowledge . ”

Al- Shafi’i was born in Gaza in 150 AH , and his mother moved him to Mecca when he was two years old. He memorized the Holy Qur’an when he was seven years old, and he memorized al- Muwatta when he was ten years old. Then he started seeking knowledge in Mecca until he was authorized to give fatwas when he was a boy under twenty years old. Al - Shafi’i immigrated to Madinah to seek knowledge with Imam Malik bin Anas , then moved to Yemen and worked in it, then moved to Baghdad in the year 184 AH . Al-Maliki (the jurisprudence of Iraq) the Hanafi school). Al-Shafi’i returned to Mecca and lived there for nearly nine years, and began giving his lessons in the Great Mosque of Mecca , then traveled to Baghdad for the second time, and presented it in the year 195 AH . In Egypt, Al-Shafi’i reclassified the book Al-Risala, which he wrote for the first time in Baghdad , and began spreading his new doctrine, arguing with his opponents, and teaching science students, until he died in Egypt in the year 204 AH .


He is “ Abu Abdullah, Muhammad bin Idris bin Abbas bin Othman bin Shafi’ bin Al-Sa’ib bin Obaid bin Abd Yazid bin Hashim bin Al- Muttalib bin Abd Manaf bin Qusai bin Kilab bin Murrah bin Ka’b bin Luay bin Ghalib bin Fahr bin Malik bin Al- Nadr , and he is Quraysh bin Kinana bin Khuzayma bin Madrakah bin Elias bin Mudar bin Nizar bin Maad bin Adnan Al-Shafi’i Al-Muttalib Al-Qurashi» .

He meets with the Messenger Muhammad in Abd Manaf bin Qusay , and it was said: “He is the cousin of the Prophet Muhammad, and he is one of those close relatives who have a share imposed on the fifth, and they are Banu Hashim and Banu al-Muttalib .”

As for his lineage from his mother’s side, there are two sayings in it:

The first: She is a Yemeni Azadi , and her name is Fatimah bint Abdullah Al-Azdiya,  and it is the well-known and correct saying on which the consensus was established, and all the narrations that were narrated on the authority of Al-Shafi’i in his lineage mention on his tongue that his mother is from the Azd.

The second: She is an Alawite Quraishite , that is, from the offspring of Ali bin Abi Talib , and this narration is odd and contradicts the consensus . The mother of Al-Shafi’i, may God be pleased with him, is Fatimah bint Abdullah bin Al- Hussein bin Ali bin Abi Talib , may God honor him, and the second well-known is that she is from Al-Azd.

Birth and upbringing


Al- Shafi’i was born in Gaza in the Levant in the year 150 AH , and on that the opinion of the great majority of the historians of the jurists and writers of their classes agreed, but there was found next to this narration someone who says: He was born in Ashkelon near Gaza , and there was even someone who crossed the Levant to Yemen , saying: He was born in Yemen .

The reason for this difference is that three narrations were narrated from al-Shafi’i:

He was born in Gaza, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abd al-Hakam that he said: Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi’i, may God be pleased with him, said to me: “I was born in Gaza in the year fifty (meaning: one hundred and fifty), and I was carried to Mecca when I was two years old.”

He was born in Ashkelon, on the authority of Amr bin Sawad that he said: Al-Shafi’i, may God be pleased with him, said to me: “I was born in Ashkelon, and when two years came to me, my mother carried me to Mecca. And he was silent about knowledge, so I said to him: “You, by God, are more knowledgeable than you are in shooting.”

He was born in Yemen , on the authority of Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Hatim, that he said: I heard Muhammad ibn Idris say: I was born in Yemen, so my mother was afraid for me in the village, and she said: “Join your family and you will be like them, for I fear that your lineage will prevail.” So she prepared me for Mecca, so I brought her while I was the son of A tenth or something like it, so I became a relative of mine, and I started to seek knowledge, and he says to me: “Do not rush with this and accept what will benefit you.” So I made my pleasure in this knowledge and seeking it until God granted him what he provided.  Imam al-Dhahabi said: “His saying: “In Yemen” is wrong, unless he means the tribe, and this is possible, but the apparent difference is.”

Scholars have tried to combine these narrations, Ibn Kathir said : “These are three narrations in the country of his birth, and it is well-known that he was born in Gaza, and it is possible that it is in Ashkelon, which is close to Gaza, then he was carried to Mecca when he was young, then his mother moved him to Yemen, when he grew up and read The Qur’an was sent to the country of his tribe, Makkah, and he requested fiqh with it, and God knows best.”  Al -Hafiz Ibn Hajar said in combining the previous narrations: “What combines the sayings is that he was born in Gaza, Ashkelon, because Ashkelon is the origin in ancient times, and it and Gaza are close together, and Ashkelon is the city. When he was two years old, his mother transferred him to the Hijaz and brought him to her people, who are from the people of Yemen, because she was Azadi, so she stayed with them.

As for the time of his birth: the narrations agreed that he was born in the year 150 AH , the year in which Imam Abu Hanifa died , and it was said: “He was born on the day Abu Hanifa died,” except that Ibn Kathir said: “This is hardly true and it is very difficult to prove it.” ».

His upbringing

Al-Shafi’i grew up in a poor family that lived in Palestine , and was residing in the Yemeni neighborhoods of it, and his father died when he was young, so his mother moved him to Mecca for fear that he would lose his honorable lineage, and he was two years old when his mother moved him to Mecca, in order to reside among his relatives, and to be educated with their culture, live among them, and be among them.

Al-Shafi’i lived in Mecca the life of poor orphans, although his lineage was noble and honorable. Rather, he is the most honorable lineage among Muslims, but he lived the life of the poor until his return was straightened, and this had a great impact on his life and morals.

Al- Shafi’i memorized the Holy Qur’an when he was seven years old, which indicates his intelligence and the strength of his memorization, then he turned to memorizing the Prophet’s hadith , so he memorized the Muwatta of Imam Malik .

Al-Shafi’i used to listen to the hadith scholars, memorize the hadith by listening, then write it on ceramic or leather , and he used to go to the diwan to comprehend the apparition to write on it, and the apparition are the papers that were written on the inside and left white on the back, and this indicates that he loved science since his early age.  Al-Shafi’i said: “I had no money, so I used to seek knowledge in modernity. I would go to the Diwan and ask them to appear and write about it.” He said: “I asked for this matter from the lightness of the hand. Our house in Makkah is near Sha’ab al-Khayf, so I would take the bones and shoulders and write in them, until our house was filled with that.”

It was also narrated from him that he said: “I was an orphan in my mother’s lap , and there was nothing with her to give the teacher, and the teacher was satisfied with my mother that I should replace him if he got up. The people of al-Khayf, so I used to look at the bone and write the hadith or the question on it, and we had a great jar, and if the bone was full, I put it in the jar.”



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